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Country profile

Myanmar has an ethnically diverse population of approximately 51.5 million. 70 per cent of the population lives in rural areas. Although Myanmar is moving up to Middle income country status defined by the World Bank clarification, substantial disparities in housing and living conditions exist between rural and urban areas and between different parts of the country. 

Myanmar is the second largest country in Southeast Asia with abundant natural resources and a large working age population. The average annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth is estimated at 8.5 per cent during 2010 to 2014. The gross domestic product per capita is $1,203.i Health expenditure in the state budget as a percentage of GDP is less than 1 per cent.ii

The maternal mortality ratio in Myanmar is high at 282 per 100,000 live births.iii HIV prevalence in the adult population aged 15 years and older was estimated at 0.54 per cent in 2014, a decline from 0.94 per cent in 2000.iv While young people aged 10-24 years account for nearly 30 per cent of the population, population growth is slowing, and the proportion of children is declining.v In the 2014 gender inequality index, Myanmar ranks as 85th of 187 Myanmar’s geography makes the country disaster prone. Natural disasters and internal conflict have displaced hundreds of thousands of people, with over half a million people estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance in 2015.vii

Key figuresviii

Total population

51.48 million


51.8 per cent


48.2 per cent

Population density

76.1 persons/km2

Urban population

30 per cent

Rural population

70 per cent

Life expectancy at birth

64.7 years

Fertility rate


Maternal mortality ratio

282 (per 100,000)

Infant mortality rate

62 (per 1000)

Under-5 mortality rate

72 (per 1000)

Disability prevalence rate

4.6 per cent

Literacy rate

89.5 per cent

Labour force participation rate

(15-64 year olds)

Total: 67.0 per cent
Male: 85.2 per cent
Female: 50.5 per cent



iii v viii 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census
ii  World Bank Group
iv  Global AIDS Response Progress Report Myanmar 2015, National AIDS Programme
vi  Human Development Report 2015
vii  Humanitarian Needs Overview 2016, Humanitarian Country Team in Myanmar